microbiome

microbiome

microbiome

The father contributes to the baby's microbiota as much as the mother after one year of life

After the first year of life, the father's contribution to his baby's microbiota is comparable to the mother's contribution, whether born vaginally or by caesarean section, says a study published in Cell Host & Microbe. In addition, faecal microbiome transplants from the mother to her baby can restore the microbiome in the case of caesarean birth, says the study, which included 74 babies and involved Spanish participants. 

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Reaction: vitamin D favours 'anti-cancer' gut bacteria in mice

Vitamin D enhances the response to cancer immunotherapy in mice via the gut microbiome, according to a study published in Science. The role of vitamin D in cancer immune modulation had already been studied in previous studies. Now, the authors suggest that this nutrient acts on intestinal epithelial cells, altering the composition of the microbiome and favoring a species of bacteria called Bacteroides fragilis, which regulates immunity against cancer.   

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Reaction: Phase 1 trial tests fecal transplantation to reduce antibiotic-resistant bacteria in susceptible individuals

The risk of developing resistant bacteria is higher in some people, such as those who have to take long-term antibiotics after organ transplantation. To try to reduce them, a phase 1 clinical trial has performed a fecal transplant on 10 people who had previously received a kidney transplant and had resistant bacteria. The fecal transplants accelerated decolonization, shortened the time it took to test negative for multidrug-resistant organisms, and, according to the authors, may also "reduce the recurrence of infections." The results are published in the journal Science Translational Medicine.

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Reactions: Myths and exaggerations about the microbiome harm your research, an article warns

An opinion piece signed by researchers from the Universities of Aberdeen and Nottingham (UK) has outlined some of the inaccuracies, exaggerations and misconceptions they say are taking place around research on the human microbiome. Some of these are curiosities, like the false belief that we have ten bacteria for every human cell. Others are more relevant, such as the fact that many specific associations between the microbiome and disease have not been confirmed in follow-up studies. According to the authors, it is important to raise awareness about myths and misconceptions to avoid unproductive research projects and preserve public confidence in microbiome science. The article is published in the journal Nature Microbiology.

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Reaction: two analyses review efficacy of faecal transplants for treating ‘C. difficile’ infections and irritable bowel diseases

Faecal microbiota transplantation can be administered by oral capsules, colonoscopy or rectal enema, among other routes. Two meta-analyses evaluate its benefits and side effects for treating two types of disease. The first focuses on recurrent infections with Clostridioides difficile, a bacterium that can cause very severe diarrhoea; it includes six studies in Europe and North America involving 320 adults and concludes that in immunocompetent people, faecal transplantation is more effective than antibiotics. The second focuses on irritable bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease; it includes 12 studies with 550 participants and has less clear results.

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Reactions: study explores how reduced microbiota transfer between mothers and babies born by c-section is compensated

About 58.5% of a baby's microbiota come from various parts of its mother's body, according to a study of the transmission of microbes between mother and child in the first month of life. The research, published in Cell Host & Microbe, is based on samples collected from 120 mother-baby pairs, with material from their nose/throat, saliva, skin, milk, vagina and faeces. It compares babies born by caesarean section and vaginally, and confirms that the reduced transfer of faecal microbes in caesarean births can be partially compensated by other transmission routes, such as breastfeeding.

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Reactions: two studies link microbiome changes to chronic fatigue syndrome

Two studies have found changes in the microbiome of patients affected by chronic fatigue syndrome. In particular, they have found a decrease in both butyrate and certain bacteria that produce butyrate. Butyrate is a factor related to the protection of the intestinal barrier and appears to play a role in the regulation of the immune system. Both papers are published in the journal Cell Host and Microbe.

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Reactions to the study exploring how the microbiome is transmitted by social contact

An international team including researchers from Spain has analysed the level of exchange of microbial strains between different generations (vertical transmission) and between people who share a household or are close contacts (horizontal transmission). The analysis, published in the journal Nature, is based on about 9,700 microbiome samples from the faeces and saliva of people with different lifestyles from countries. According to the research, the transmission of bacteria is more frequent for the mouth microbiome than for the gut microbiome among people living together.   

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