A meta-analysis analyzing the results of 18 clinical trials concludes that influenza vaccination may produce more adverse reactions in women than in men. According to the authors, whose research is published in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, "the data suggest that most reactions are mild, self-limited, and rarely serious." "Transparent communication about the increased risk for women could help maintain long-term confidence in health authorities and vaccines," they add.
Reactions: The lineage of the so-called 'swine flu' has passed from humans to pigs almost 400 times since 2009
Influenza A can cause influenza in humans, birds, pigs, and other mammals. In 2009 and 2010, a pandemic caused by the pdm09 strain—popularly called 'swine flu' because it contained genetic sequences from avian, swine, and human influenza—caused thousands of human deaths worldwide. Since then, this lineage has crossed over 370 times from humans to pigs in the United States, according to a study published in PLOS Pathogens. The research also indicates that the circulation of the virus among pigs may cause further evolutionary changes in this lineage, which would increase the risk of the virus passing back to humans.
A study by Spanish researchers coordinated by CEU San Pablo University has analyzed the factors associated with poor prognosis in case of influenza infection. After analyzing data on 48,000 patients from 135 investigations in 28 countries, they conclude that bacterial superinfections increase the risk of death 3.4 times. The authors propose to increase early diagnostic measures so that antibiotics can be administered quickly in cases where there is a higher risk of complications. The results are published in the International Journal of Infectious Diseases.
A study published in the journal Science Translational Medicine shows the results of a phase 1 trial of a new broad-spectrum influenza vaccine. Prepared in the form of nanoparticles containing the H1 hemagglutinin stem-a region that is often conserved in different subtypes of the virus-the vaccine was generally well tolerated by participants, who showed only mild side effects such as tenderness and headaches. The prototype generated an antibody response to group 1 influenza viruses in all age groups.
A study published in the journal Science reports preclinical results of a new vaccine model that is intended to work against all types of influenza. The prototype, which uses mRNA-based technology, includes antigens from all 20 known influenza subtypes.